The only segment of aviation that currently has a rising accident trend is general aviation. GA is also the only segment that does not emphasize being "in command. New studies reveal a proactive approach to general aviation flight operations successfully improves general aviation accident odds. Based on FAA-mandated pilot-in-command authority and responsibility for flight safety and operations, "Pilots in Command: Strategic Action Plan for Reducing Pilot Error" provides private pilots a how-to guide to cockpit decision making.
Using a step-by-step model, pilots discover how to use available tools to avoid pilot error. The book also identifies inherent pilot habits commonly practiced by general aviation pilots and presents methods for self-retraining to eliminate the problematic behaviors. General Aviation training is changing to meet the facts of rising accident trends and subsequent investigation into its origins and prevention. It is effective decision making that produces effective flight, and Craig expertly weds the two in a hands-on approach pilots can apply every time they fly.
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Pilot in Command by Paul A. Based on FAA-mandated pilot-in-command authority and responsibility for flight safety and operations, Pilots in Command: Strategic Action Plan for Reducing Pilot Error provides private pilots a how-to guide to cockpit decision making. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 4. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
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To ask other readers questions about Pilot in Command , please sign up. It follows directly that any theory likely to be useful in shedding light on human error in the aeronautical milieu must have a common descriptive framework e. If the systems were totally automatic, the appropriate theoretical constructs would be those of vehicular control and systems engineering, comprising deterministic and stochastic aspects, with a dynamic reliability flavor.
The substitution of human components introduces a great deal of complication because human control behavior can be much richer than the automatic variety; because human cognitive behavior enters the scene; and because human variability as functions of task, environmental, and operator-centered variables introduces dimensions that are not present in an automatic system.
To meld such features into useful theories clearly requires highly talented, integrated partnerships of dynamic systems engineering and behavioral science i. To be useful in design, prediction, and assessment—or even for insight—theories of human error should satisfy certain criteria.
More particularly, the theories should be suitable to relate causes and triggering events from the outside with responsive human behavioral action capabilities. Identification of causes can lead directly to remedies. The principal human capabilities involved should be susceptible to measurement and quantification as indicators of current human status. The first three general criteria are axiomatic. The fourth needs more description, that is, good theories of human error must be suitable not only to identify or predict problem areas but also to indicate what can be done to rectify them.
Thus, the theories must be interpretable in terms of changes that can be made in. Singleton, in a seminal paper, 5 examines an extremely broad cross section of theories that could ultimately provide some hope for insights into human error. The theoretical approaches he considered included psychoanalytic, stimulus-response, field e. He noted that the most useful methods for treating and classifying errors presently available are those based on tracing the flow of information through the operator from input to output, corresponding to the italicized approaches listed.nabeencbullna.cf
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Nagel 6 presents an excellent comprehensive outline of theories of human error pertinent to aviation. The underlined approaches from Singleton's descriptions, emphasized above continue to be conspicuous and important candidates 15 years later; yet none of them meet all the criteria described above, although some come fairly close in one respect or another. In open-loop forms, the information flow is commandlike and discrete in character.
These commands can be initiated from either the. Singleton, W. Theoretical approaches to human error. Ergonomics 16 6 : — Nagel, D. Human error in aviation operations. Weiner and D. Nagel, eds. New York: Academic Press. Thus, feedback principles are inherently in operation, although "signals" and "actions" may or may not be substantially continuous.
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It is applicable to both open- and closed-loop situations. Major accidents and incidents ascribed to human error are usually the result of a combination of circumstances—each innocent enough by itself if attended to in a timely manner—that combine to create a situation of cognitive or control overload, often with catastrophic consequences. The concomitant human behavioral feature is divided attention capability.
When this capability is high, the individual circumstances are handled as they build up in an appropriate and timely manner, and system status is regulated to satisfy goals and purposes.
On the other hand, when the divided attention capability is diminished, the circumstances are not appreciated in their totality, and attention is narrowly focused on a subset of the total. If this is the wrong subset, system status can diverge or otherwise exceed tolerable boundaries, leading to "grievous error. Different theories of human error deliver answers with differing perspectives.
The divided attention theory is often appropriate to handle such typical human error examples as 1 poor team execution of prioritization, coordination, and communication tasks; 2 inadequate use of crew coordination, insufficient crew advocacy, poor communications in the cockpit or between the cockpit and the ATM system; 3 lack of situational awareness insufficient perception or integration of cues and clues ; and 4 controlled flight into terrain.
The first three are clear consequences of insufficient divided attention operational capacities. In the last example, poor divided attention capability could be an error, such as an inappropriately low-altitude command setting for the automatic pilot. In divided attention human error paradigms, the divided attention capability of the human fluctuates as work load is varied via task complexity and as operator-centered aspects are "adjusted" by fatigue, work load, or alcohol ingestion for example.
Consider a well-trained and highly experienced pilot who is normally well-prepared for emergencies, and who. Hollister, W. When various stressors are added, such as saturated work load, fatigue, certain prescription drugs, or circadian desynchronization, the pilot's divided-attention capability will degrade significantly.
The pilot may appear to be quite normal as long as one thing can be handled at a time without consideration of other events, but the least overload can become catastrophic unless external surveillance and action intervene. At the open-loop command and data entry level, "slips" an incorrect and inadvertent action and "mistakes" an incorrect intention , as proposed by Reason and Norman 8 , 9 , 10 are constructs useful in ad hoc "explanations.
Statistical decision theory also offers an excellent basis for discrete command situations. This approach has been applied in an aeronautical application for pilot decision making in the presence of windshear possibilities. Reason, J.
Pilot in Command (Practical Flying)
Absent Minded? Englewood Cliffs, N. Norman, D. Design rules based on analyses of human error. Communications of the ACM, McRuer, D. Clement, and W. Moffett Field, Calif.
Schwartz, S. Krendel, E. Allen, Z. Parseghian, and D. Hawthorne, Calif: Systems Technology. A perceptually centered generalization of this theory is applicable to monitoring and other tasks wherein the pilot is not directly engaged in action.