But the capital stands out above all as regards the low birth rate. Only the regions located on the Yser front line recorded a drop in the birth rate which was proportionally more significant. Evolution of the crude birth rate.
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Undernourishment may also have made women temporarily infertile [Scholliers, Daelemans, ]. This sequence was seen elsewhere, in Wallonia and in the industrial area of Charleroi [Eggerickx, ], as well as in other countries, such as France and Germany. The death statistics from these regions and from Brussels illustrate the worsening of living conditions and in particular the provisioning difficulties which affected the civilian populations beginning in The evolution of the crude death rate. Source: Population censuses of and , calculations T. The conflict probably amplified the birth rate control begun several decades earlier and impeded at least for certain age groups the evolution of the mortality rate.
Between and , the life expectancy at birth in the urban area of Brussels increased from 52,8 years to 59,1 years, i.
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At the same time, at the scale of the country, the average life expectancy increased by only three years and by only one year between and , from 50,7 years to 53,5 years. Based on this average indicator, World War I was only a brief mishap in the improvement of survival rates [Winter, ], particularly in the capital. Compared with the national situation and that of the two other regions, the decrease in the mortality rate is not only more significant in Brussels, but among children and adults, it concerns wider age ranges.
The noticeable decrease in the mortality rate of young children, even during the war years [Winter, ], is mainly due to the development of child protection charities infant wellness visits, nursery canteens, etc. Two elements may explain this situation: among men, the greater risk of dying from war injuries, and more generally, the weakening of the population, after years of deprivation and malnutrition.
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Finally, let us underline the fact that the deterioration in the survival rates at these ages is proportionally less marked in Brussels than in Belgium or in the Walloon rural areas and the industrial area of Charleroi [Eggerickx, ]. This has been interpreted by some as a consequence of World War I and of the major economic depression of the s [Schellekens, Van Poppel, ], and by others as a simple continuation of the trends which had begun several decades earlier [Festy, ] and whose explanatory factors are related to the rise in individualism, consumerism and the secularisation of society [Van Bavel, ].
These low fertility rates are evidence of very effective Malthusianism practised in marriage [Eggerickx, ], and in this case as well, World War I and the economic depression of the s may have reinforced these trends. It may also be assumed that it is in the most urbanised areas — which are places of individualisation, anonymity and the radicalisation of behaviour par excellence — that the fertility rate reached its lowest level and that the impact of economic events was understandably the greatest. The evolution of the lifetime fertility of generations with a year gap in Belgium and in Brussels.
Source: Festy, ; Population censuses of and , calculations T. In a presentation of the major contradictions in World War I figures, British historian Niall Ferguson underlined the discrepancies between the different existing censuses which list the victims of the conflict in Belgium. Without a precise definition of the methodological framework used for counting, it is difficult to obtain a truly reliable estimate. A breakdown of military losses of the other powers present in the Belgian territory is still unavailable, whereas the civilian losses have received attention only recently [cf.
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In the case in point, this is not due to simple and macabre discrepancies in numbers. First, there is the tomb of the unknown soldier, a monument erected in in memory of all of the Belgians who died in combat. Then there are the places where Belgian soldiers as well as the victims of other armies are buried. This last point concerns five of the eight sites in Brussels mentioned above.
And finally, there are the sites with the graves of citizens who were shot, such as, for example, the former Tir National in Schaerbeek where 35 civilians were executed and buried, among whom are famous figures such as Gabrielle Petit, Philippe Baucq and Edith Cavell, exhumed after the war at the request of their families in order to be buried in family tombs. These experiences have shaped the collective memories at different levels via official channels and instruments such as the various commemoration ceremonies, as well as via — sometimes differing — family heritage [Welzer, ].
At the outbreak of hostilities, immense crowds rushed onto the roads to escape the enemy troops. Brussels was among the first cities in the country to welcome these fugitives. Until the arrival of the Germans on 20 August , the city received an increasing number of refugees.
In Brussels, compared with other cities, this phenomenon of escape was relatively limited. The capital was not the scene of violent military commitments and the relative calm surrounding the German entry was not conducive to the outbreak of vast movements of collective panic.
Finally, the demographic recovery in was proportionally almost three times higher than in Flanders and Wallonia.
The evolution in annual growth rates of the population in the urban area of Brussels. Source: Population movement statistics, DG, calculations T. If we refer to the population movement statistics, in Brussels, before, during and after the war, the growth rate was mainly related to the migratory balance.
The large deficit of resulted from a very negative net migration, probably related to the exodus of the inhabitants of Brussels and to the departure of servicemen and war volunteers at the beginning of the conflict. In and , the net migration became positive once again — an evolution without a doubt related to the return of some of the people who had fled the capital one year earlier. Finally, the post-war recovery was almost exclusively related to the very positive net migration. The role of migrations was therefore predominant in Brussels and only the demographic deficit of resulted from a negative natural balance.
The haggard exile, harassed and deprived of everything, became an almost familiar figure in the Brussels landscape throughout the conflict.
Beginning in , the committee had to double its efforts, as the evacuation by the Germans of the inhabitants in the area of the front caused an influx of several hundred thousand French and Flemish people in need of food and shelter. Until they were repatriated, the French evacuees from Lens, Saint-Quentin and Douai were placed as best as possible in empty buildings.
This extreme discretion reflects the very reserved reception which the hundreds of thousands of Belgians received when they returned from exile, whose suffering was almost erased from the collective memory [see Amara, ]. Due to the stalemate and human cost of the war, Germany was faced with a shortage of labour. This propaganda was not as successful as they had hoped, and, following the arrival of Hindenburg and Ludendorff as chiefs of staff, the German authorities ordered mass deportations as of November In Brussels, they took place mainly from 20 to 24 January , on notice, at the South Station.
Guillaume II put an end to it through an imperial ruling on 14 March , and most of the deportees from Brussels returned home gradually, weak, ill and even incapable of going back to work. On 10 June , a first law granted them a compensation. It was soon judged to be insufficient and not adapted to the prejudices experienced, and was complemented by a new law on 25 July , which increased the amount of compensation somewhat.
Once again, this lack of presence in the public space in Brussels bears meaning: it testifies to the fact that, despite the suffering endured and recognised via the compensation laws, the memory of the deportees has been erased little by little, albeit not as abruptly as that of the exiles. However, with respect to the seriousness of this event, the suffering endured by the population of Brussels and the memory of those who would never return, very early on there was a need to preserve the memory of the event in order to give it meaning and to pass on the memory of the Great War to future generations.
The inventory made by Emmanuel Debruyne in the framework of a study on memory and the war in Brussels [Van Yperseele, Debruyne, Kesteloot, ] identified more than material traces of the Great War present today in the territory of the Brussels-Capital Region, mainly in the form of monuments, elements in the toponymy and commemorative plaques. The main results are summarised below. As an occupied capital during the entire conflict, early on, Brussels honoured the figures of the famous civilians Adolphe Max, Cardinal Mercier, Ernest Solvay, etc.
These villages — which were quickly becoming urbanised during the interwar period — named many of the new roads in memory of World War I. This type of practice was much more difficult for the municipalities in the inner ring, which were already densely populated and urbanised at the beginning of the s. These municipalities therefore often favoured the inauguration of plaques and monuments rather than changing the names of streets, which were sometimes very old and therefore deeply engrained in the public memory. As such, even in the capital, the national government scarcely had the power to monopolise the memorial policy.
The commemorative actions and monuments are nurtured by a certain number of received ideas and implicit assumptions 6 aimed at reinforcing what is believed to be known about these years. The municipal story is compatible with the meta-narrative told by the communities which organise and finance the memorial efforts. The only issue which seems to receive attention is related to the presence of Congolese troops in the military operations in Europe and Africa or in the trenches, alongside metropolitan soldiers and contingents from other empires [Brosens, ; Catherine, ].
This near absence is not surprising, as the inclusion of the colonial dimension in the history of Belgium remains very basic [Vanthemsche, ]. Little is known about what happened in Congo from June For example, due to later private initiatives, monuments were erected in the memory of Lieutenant General Tombeur and the Force publique. Brosens, ] some of them had a direct link with Brussels as they had lived there for some time before the war, in particular in the Anneessens neighbourhood remains largely unknown today.
Commemorations in Square Riga.
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Source: J. Goovaerts, November 11th The presence of this dual colonial memory — Belgian and Congolese — in the territory of the capital is all the more interesting since it does not convey the same message in the recognition of the contribution of Congo during the first world conflict, thus resulting in separate commemorations.
Other buildings such as Saint-Pierre hospital also received funds from reconstruction programmes. This was the case, for example, with two windows placed in in the church at Sablon in memory of the people killed during the conflict, representing the Belgian fighters as well as the monarchs [ Le Patrimoine monumental de la Belgique. It also lies in the development and renewal of the urban fabric, due to material destruction caused by the war and the arrival of many refugees, which increased the demographic pressure.
Beyond these figures, it must be noted that at the end of World War I, the debates from before on the quality of dwellings resurfaced with renewed vigour [Van den Eeckhout, It still marks the current landscape of Brussels, with 26 garden cities these are often residential areas rather than separate neighbourhoods in 10 municipalities.
They are in keeping with a functionalist vision of urban planning which divided the city into separate areas, each with their own role. The economic destruction and upheaval caused by the war prompted the middle-class inhabitants of Brussels to choose to live in flats. The low-rise model remained popular, however, mainly in the suburbs undergoing urbanisation, where the cost of land still allowed it.
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From this point of view, Brussels offers a wide range of under-exploited possibilities, due to a lack of innovative educational material. In order to approach the events of the Great War through components specific to Brussels, these Classes du Patrimoine have developed an interactive circuit in the city centre marked by a series of places and monuments related to twelve themes on the war. The different members of the civil resistance who had a connection with Brussels — Gabrielle Petit, Edith Cavell and Philippe Baucq — are thus integrated in a national pantheon of figures whose lives are presented to the students.
At the very most, certain researchers [Kavadias, ] have shown the significance of knowledge passed on by teachers to children during such outdoor visits social and civic skills , with respect to content and knowledge as such. Yet the examples are not lacking: as it were, World War I served as a laboratory for technical, medical and organisational innovations which are still deeply ingrained in the reality of Brussels today. We shall present some examples below.
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This did not only involve fighting against disease. Healthcare for mothers and children had become a priority everywhere. This was also the case in Belgium and in particular in Brussels, where a very dense network of associations were established to improve the health of young children. The results were impressive, as in , the mortality risk for a one-year-old child was even lower than before the beginning of the conflict. Its current work is a direct prolongation of the first infant wellness visits initiated between and Saint-Pierre hospital, inaugurated in but whose construction was decided on in thanks to funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, constitutes the implementation of these new management principles tested by Depage during the war and inspired by methods already practised in the United States.
Saint-Pierre was a state-of-the-art institution which was also centred on practical education.
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Its architecture was designed to optimise communication and constant cooperation between practitioners of different disciplines. Fosdick published the results of a study conducted in Europe two years earlier, at the request of the Bureau of Social Hygiene which was created at the instigation of John D. Rockefeller Jr, on the different European police systems. While he understood the fragmentation of the urban area into 16 municipalities at the time and into the same number of police forces, he did not mention the additional complexity, i.
This system underwent a sudden review after the German invasion of 4 August As regards the judicial police, the magistracy had always criticised the police for their lack of knowledge of investigative techniques, such as fingerprinting, for example. Crowned with the prestige of having defied the Germans by decreeing a legal strike in , the magistracy took advantage of it to put forth its demands for after the liberation.
Thanks to the action of the Brussels minister Emile Vandervelde, a law was voted in for the creation of a new specialised police unit, i. In the area of the maintenance of order, the German authority first pushed the Brussels police to equip themselves better. In spring , they created a sort of mobile brigade within the central management, i. However, the police were only able to prove themselves during the last weeks of the war, when the social context led to overflows: massive influx of refugees from northern France, period of turmoil for the Soldatenrat , pillaging of the German warehouses by the soldiers themselves, etc.
It was only after the proclamation of the state of siege on 17 November and the intervention of the Belgian military cavalry that the calm returned gradually, as the municipal police themselves did not have enough men and means to maintain order in the capital.