After receiving useful comments, the questionnaire adapted from [ 29 ] was modified; primarily, cultural capital was merged with social capital forming organizational capital. Similar was done by other authors [ 62 , 63 ]. The question related to the number of years respondents have lived in a particular county was redesigned: I have lived in this country long enough to be familiar with its culture cultural capital ; and the sociodemographic part of the questionnaire was extended. The revised questionnaire was clearer, which improved completion process by reducing possible misunderstanding.
The final version of the questionnaire used in the study consists of two parts. The first part of the questionnaire focuses on 41 capital predictors representing economic 7 , organizational 11 , human 12 , physical 7 , and natural 4 capital resources. In this section of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to evaluate the level of agreement with capital predictors on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree.
The second part includes questions which examine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents e. Using the EM-DAT database [ 35 ] the authors calculated the top 12 European countries in terms of number of natural disasters those with over 20 recorded events , for the period Table 1. The most frequent recorded disasters include storms, floods, extreme weather conditions cold or heat waves , ground movements and wildfires, respectively. Following that, two main pathways were used to reach hotel general managers in those countries: directly by the authors, and indirectly through National hotel associations.
Both National hotel associations and hotel managers were contacted by email explaining the purpose of the study. National hotel associations were asked to forward the link to an online survey Google Forms to their members, or to complete the questionnaire in case of a direct contact with managers. The online survey was conducted from January to March National hotel associations were contacted in order to speed up the research process. The sample consists of 63 hotel managers from 63 hotels located in 12 countries Figure 1. Spatial distribution of the study sample — the most affected European countries by natural disasters.
Although hospitality industry is a sector being especially significant in the employment of women up to The most dominant age group was Regarding work experience, those who have worked as a hotel manager from 10 to 15 years The detailed characteristics of the sample are shown in Table 2.
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Similar findings were reported in the research conducted by Brown et al. In that study, hotel managers highly ranked evacuation plans, local building codes and backup of all critical organizational data. Also, many of the organizational capital predictors obtained a relatively high mark which implies that managers are dedicated to the organization they work for, especially to team approach to planning, leadership and problem solving.
This is of a great importance for each organization because it is crucial to its success how they perform during crisis caused by external events [ 75 ]. One of the primary reasons for this is the financial situation of the organization [ 60 ]. These results are not in favor of hotel resilience knowing that the economic opportunities can greatly reduce the negative effect of disasters and make communities more resilient [ 61 ]. T-test for independent samples was applied with the aim to compare arithmetic means of two groups — independent variables experience with a disaster as hotel manager and general experience with a disaster and dependent variables economic, organizational, human, physical and natural capital predictors.
Hotel managers that have previous experience with a natural disaster give higher grades than the others.
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Having experienced manager at top position is very important especially for individual and small hotels knowing that such hotels mainly rely on their own experience in dealing with emergency situations [ 41 ]. Additionally, it is worth mentioning that statistically significant differences in responses between managers with different type of experience with natural disaster have not been found in this study.
The relation between previous experience with natural disasters as hotel manager and hotel resilience. Recent studies investigated previous experience in natural disasters and concluded that it represents a factor that highly affects risk perception of such natural events [ 50 ]. In line with our findings, some scholars [ 10 , 52 , 53 ] have noted that previous experience positively correlates with disaster risk perception e. Similarly, organizations that experienced natural disasters in the past, and learnt the hard way their effects, are more likely to develop this segment of business activity.
This includes emergency plans, communication, redistribution of available resources, marketing, etc. By applying the one-way analysis of variance ANOVA the existence of statistically significant connection between dependant variables economic, organizational, human, physical and natural capital predictors and independent variables managerial experience period, hotel category and organization size was examined.
The relation between organizational age and crisis was explored by a few scholars [ 56 , 57 , 58 ]. However, none of them addressed the relation between managerial experience period and hotel resilience Figure 4 , as explored in this study. The performed LSD post hoc test clearly revealed that respondents with more than 10 years of managerial experience within hotel industry rewarded those predictors with higher scores, i.
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The significance of managerial experience is crucial in these situations as sometimes organizations rely only on that [ 41 ]. Moreover, those with higher resilience tend to be less affected [ 76 ] and more able to manage disruptive challenges [ 77 ]. This is somehow expected since education and experience positively influence technical, social and conceptual knowledge and skills of managers [ 78 ]. The results also greatly differ in relation to hotel category Figure 5 and hotel organization size Figure 6.
Some studies have provided evidence that supports our findings concerning the link between organization size and hotel category, and crisis planning [ 56 , 58 , 59 , 60 ]. Furthermore, Caponigro [ 60 ] states that large organizations are in a better position due to their financial profile and it is more probable for them to have an emergency plan in comparison to small organizations which believe that such crisis will not affect them.
Although organization size is usually classified according to the number of employees [ 56 ], in this study we applied the hotel size classification suggested by Davidson [ 79 ] as follows: small up to 10 rooms , medium up to 50 rooms , and large over 50 rooms. Taking into account the fact that the number of tourists affected by natural disasters is high, the importance of providing information that can influence the mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters to the local community and hotels, is gaining in importance. Hotels have a very important role in raising awareness in the local community about the importance of planning activities to reduce the harmful effects of natural disasters.
The ability of hotel managers to preserve the material and human resources in the emergency situations and re-establish the functioning of business processes in the hotel, improves organizational resilience. The results of this paper show that hotels run by managers who have previous experience with natural disasters, or by managers with longer internship in the hotel industry, show a higher degree of resilience compared to the others. Such managers are much more aware of the importance of investing in the resilience of the hotel, and thus invest in the necessary procedures and allocate financial resources for these purposes.
Statistically significant differences in answers of managers have been noted in relation to the category and size of the hotel.
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Larger hotels and those with higher category are more resilient. Hence, recommendations for managers of smaller and lower category hotels are to have a more comprehensive perception of natural disaster risks and to adjust the costs of managing such risks accordingly, within a long term strategy. Also, it is necessary to develop natural disaster risk management models and to establish internationally recognized standards that would increase the degree of compliance of hotels and therefore their resilience.
In this case, hotel resilience would not depend so much on the profile of a manager. These standards should be flexible enough to reflect the needs of the local community and focus on raising awareness through staff training to encourage effective adoption of the proposed measures.
In addition, it is necessary to define the leaders in the hotel industry at the local level which would be the starting point for the development and implementation of the standards. Creating partnerships between government organizations, the public and the private sector in order to promote cooperative and coordinated programs for recovery from the consequences of natural disasters, at the levels of both the hotel organization and at the local community, would contribute to the sustainable management of natural hazards.
This study has certain limitations that should be mentioned. First, the sample includes a smaller share of managers who have had experience with natural disasters during their hospitality career or generally in life. In this respect, the sample should be stratified, leading to an equal number of respondents in both groups. Secondly, as a lack of research, a cross-sectional approach to research can be indicated.
Thus, the longitudinal approach should be considered in order to study hotel resilience over a certain period of time. This traceability would make it possible to draw conclusions about the causal relationships between different variables, or the causes that affect the resilience of hotels. Future research into the resilience of hotels to natural disasters should include other independent variables that are not included in this research such as the type of hotel e.
Also, comparing the organizational resilience with respect to the type and frequency of the occurrence of natural disasters would show interesting results.
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Lastly, similar study should be conducted in other European countries, even in those with less frequently reported natural disasters because such disastrous events can happen rarely but can leave long-lasting consequences on hotel industry and tourism sector in general. AlBattat A. Pizam A. Travel Res. Rittichainuwat B. Prideaux B. Travel Tour. Faulkner B. Tourism Manage. Ritchie B. Reisinger Y. Thapa B.
Tsai C. Tourism Geogr.
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